The first Albigensian appeared in the beginning of 11th century. They preached Apostolic Christianity and were simple, moral and sheltered life, so at first, they were called “good people” (fewer bones homes). However, after the first excommunication from the Church; delivered at the Cathedral in Toulouse, convened by Pope Calixtus II, began to call Toulouse the heretics.
Despite all the differences, each school has generated in the hearts of the contemporaries of the faith is so blind and bigoted that it for several centuries could not be broken, nor the Inquisition, nor the fire.
Faith brought missionaries to the madness. It is difficult to call a reasonable person that a smile comes to execution. Cathars burned at Cologne in 1163, made a deep impression on the joyful courage with which they met a violent death.
City — sources of heresy also suffered a sad fate. In 1209 for refusing to give residents of the Cathars, the crusades, the entire population (20,000 people) was destroyed and the city looted. The looting and robberies, in General, were in those days common, because under the flag of the Church in the name of saving souls from eternal damnation was any, often of dubious reputation.
In addition, the murder of a heretic was not considered a sin, quite the contrary — it was an act pleasing to God. In IV-V centuries the largest Christian theologian, revered by the Catholic Church to this day, Augustine justified the necessity of the use of force heretics, up to physical destruction. Augustine believed that the punishment of heresy not evil, but “act of love”, “strong medicine”.
Besides, the heretics had brought the Treasury of the Catholic Church big income, because the property of a heretic became the property of the Church. So, in 1325, a priest named Peter de Tornamira accused of belonging to the Franciscans-spiritualism, appeared before Inquisition already dying. The Inquisitor was away, and his Deputy with the notary began to collect testimony in the presence of three laymen.
The accused died before the end of the interrogation, but despite this, the evidence was signed. As a result of improper of the court was affected by the interests of the heirs who wished to save his property. The dispute over this issue lasted thirty-two years. In the end, the verdict was reversed. But it is only an isolated case. Basically, any argument with the Church ended in nothing. The plaintiff simply did not live up to the resolution of the dispute.
At the beginning of the XII century with the aim to return the Catholic faith to its former purity was established the order of the mendicant monks (Dominicans, Franciscans). At first, they had great success. The vow of Apostolic poverty liked people. People, inspired by the preaching of these monks again at some time back in the bosom of the Church. However, it was not without its oddities.
Once Katara deftly “pulled” over the representatives of one of the orders. In society spread rumors that the heretics worship the unusual crucifix and feet of Christ on the crucifix, crossed and nailed with three nails instead of two. The crucifix supposedly has a power that can heal disease and to bring the owner good luck and success. The monks took it at face value and began to produce the crucifixion similar to Qatari.
Later it became known that the Cathars were made this crucifix, in order to laugh at the stupidity of the monks. And the rumors they spread themselves to great effect.
Over time, of the order of “mendicant monks” have emerged as the weapon of retaliation in the hands of Rome. They participated in the Crusades, were sent to distant countries preaching and were violent in their faith. Over time, the debauchery and the lust for gold have penetrated here. Of course, the monks that reside at the lowest level of the hierarchy were still poor. All funds concentrated in the hands of the leaders of the order. Fish rot from the head.
Someone was supposed to be orderly this torn by passions “of the forest”. A natural result of evolution in the year 1233 was the creation of the Inquisition.
Boniface of Montferrat
In 1215 the fourth Lateran Council raised the issue of the eradication of heresy, and the decisions of this Council laid the theoretical basis for the activity of this organization. The Cathedral was laid upon the Church the responsibility for the persecution of dissidents. And the official purpose of the Inquisition is the universal establishment of the one Holy Catholic faith. But there was another, unspoken, but such understandable human purpose — the enrichment of the Church.
In the XIII century, inquisitorial tribunals were established in the South of France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal, and later in other European countries. The head of the Inquisition was the Pope. The members of the inquisitorial tribunals did not obey the secular authorities, and entirely dependent on the Pope.
Widely used denunciations and false testimony. The denunciation was made a duty to the faithful and generously rewarded from the estate of prisoners. The names of the witnesses — and they could be adults and children, friends and enemies, believers and heretics, murderers and perjurers — also remain secret.
The execution was preceded by a painful ritual, which included the crowded procession of citizens, organized and led by members of the inquisitorial Tribunal, the singing of the funeral hymn and a funeral mass, the sermon of the Inquisitor, the sentencing, the convict garb in clownish clothes. Completes all public burning of a heretic at the stake, that is autos.
In fact, the Inquisition was an infallible machine to eliminate any doubt. But the power changed, so did the purpose of the Inquisition.
At the turn of XIV-XV centuries, people were tired to only burn heretics — servants of the devil. And here in the XV century for the first time drew the attention of witches and their covers and the black mass. “Previously, the Christian world had never seen such horror” — as contemporaries evaluated the new trend of the era.
The fire got a lot of women suspected of witchcraft. Only one caveat — in the XV-XVII centuries the witch trials affected only the advanced countries. Russia, the Balkan States, and Eastern Europe at that time was not sufficiently developed. Yes, in Russia, happened, have burned witches, but not in such large quantities as in advanced Europe.
The official opening of the witch hunt can be called the Cathedral of Basel (1440), in which prelates and theologians from all over Europe were discussing ways of dealing with heresy.
Immediately there were practical works on combat magic and witchcraft by such authors as Martin Le franc, Johannes Nieder, Claude Toulouse and, finally, Henry Incisors and Jacob Sprenger, the authors of “Malleus Maleficarum”. It is widely believed that it is the “Hammer of witches” marked the beginning of the widespread persecution of witches.
“Hammer of witches” — a treatise on demonology and the most appropriate methods of persecution of witches.
It was believed that witches deny Jesus Christ, the sacraments, the Church and enter into a contract with the devil, pledging to cause all sorts of harm to life, health, property, livestock, to participate in night gatherings. The Sabbath was held under the chairmanship of the devil, who appeared to witches in the flesh. Simply put, the sins that were attributed to heretics, also attributed to witches and wizards, adding a couple of points.
At first, trials of witches took place exclusively before the tribunals of the Roman Inquisition. During major processes of the local courts were required to forward all relevant documents at the conclusion of the Supreme court. Things about witches, along with heretics, less Majesty, treason, robbery of land and sea, and of counterfeiting as members of the category “very important”.
However, to initiate proceedings about witchcraft, it was enough to the presence of a witness statement that could be considered plausible.
For example: “Woman made to eat man pie, and he felt sick to the stomach and the other man after a quarrel with her sick ox, and the third specified the woman put a spell”. Such facts the court recognized the very real and the defendant was now only one way — to the fire. Thanks to the playful children, vengeful personalities, envious, etc. the number of victims is steadily growing.