The seventeenth century in French history is divided into two halves: the second is called “the Great century” – the century of Louis XIV, and the first – a dark time of tyranny of cardinal Richelieu, from behind which shyly Peeps cartoon figure of Louis XIII, the father of the future Sun King. Like all stereotypes, this simplified view leads us astray from the truth…
The relationship between Louis Fair (a nickname we won’t give) and the cardinal earned the nickname “the great”, was not such as they were described by the romantic poet Alfred de Musset or prolific Dumas.
Also, don’t ignore another character, one time complementing their Duo to a trio – the Queen-mother Marie de Medici. This era provides rich material for reflection on the role of personality in history.
The first half of the seventeenth century was a transitional period from feudal liberty to absolutism, like any transition period, it was a time of stormy passions, struggle, ambition, the clash of traditions and new imperatives, making difficult decisions; it was a time of suffering and sorrow, but at the same time, expectations and hopes. Don’t be the thirty years of the reign of Louis XIII, his son, officially stayed on the throne as much as seventy years, could not say: “I am the State”.
Louis XIII was born September 27, 1601. The Dauphin was raised as the future king, and the boy from an early age was aware of his high and important destiny.
“It was more difficult to manage that he, it seemed, was born to rule and command others,” wrote his first mentor, Vauquelin des Rennes. On the question of the teacher, the duty of a good Emperor, Louis once said: “Fear God”. “Love and justice”, said the teacher, but the Dauphin corrected him: “No! Need to administer justice”.
From childhood he hated lies, he said what he thought, and discouraging your trust for those who ever tried to deceive him. This quality he retained when he became king and many Ministers have learned this trait of his character the hard way.
He was not yet nine when his father Henry IV, whom he idolized, was killed. This tragedy really struck the child, by nature inclined to be melancholy and sad reverie, but did not break his character. Officially, the king became of age at thirteen, but the Queen-mother, who ruled the country from the face of his eldest son, was not going to produce power from their hands.
This arrogant, overbearing, vindictive, selfish woman did not possess the public mind, and easily fell under foreign influence, even needed him. Deep down, she was timid and indecisive, insecure and suggestible, but it is foolish stubborn.
She allowed herself to cast a spell on an Italian adventurer Concini, husband of his beloved lady’s maid Leonora Galigai. He led the king’s Council and justice, and not knowing the laws, became Marshal d Ankr without smelling the gunpowder, and in its arrogance has reached the point that allowed themselves to take the place of the king, and leaving the presence of the Queen-mother, had pretended to be buttoning his pants.
Concini – Italian adventurer, favorite of the French Queen Maria de Medici, who bore the title of count della Penna and the Marquis de Ankr. He was the most influential in France by a man during the seven years that followed the death in 1610 wife Mary, of Henry
In 1614, in France, declared the election of deputies to the States-General; the delegates from the clergy were Bishop Lysonski – Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu.
After he managed to convince the deputies from the nobles to agree to the extension of the dual reign – the young king and Queen-mother for an indefinite period, Marie de Medici became interested in special young Prelate. Richelieu flattered her shamelessly and saw that his calculation is correct.
In 1615, Louis married the Spanish Infanta Anne of Austria, and his sister Elizabeth married the Spanish Prince Philip, Confessor to Anne appointed Richelieu.
Acted as an intermediary for the more important negotiations between Marie and the Prince de Conde, who headed the army of dissatisfied Concini (at the forefront of her were half-brothers of king Caesar and Alexander of Vendôme), the Bishop got a seat in the Royal Council. Conde was arrested and imprisoned in the Bastille, and Richelieu became Secretary of state for foreign Affairs, having been engaged in also by the reorganization of the army.
The main goal of its foreign policy, he believed raising the prestige of France in Europe. The Secretary of state had a lot of plans, but suddenly the sound of thunder from a seemingly clear sky: April 24, 1617, Concini was killed in the courtyard of the Louvre with the blessing of sixteen of the king.
“Madam,’ said Louis Mary, I will always take care of you, as befits a good son. I want to relieve you from the burden of worries that you have taken on by performing my duty; it’s time for you to rest, now I will deal with them myself and will not tolerate that someone, besides me, ordered the Affairs of my Kingdom. Now I’m the king”.