When did Mikhail Gorbachev come to power?
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician. The eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, he was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991.
How old is Mikhail Gorbachev?
90 years (March 2, 1931)
How did Mikhail Gorbachev lose power in the Soviet Union quizlet?
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. You just studied 15 terms!
What challenges did Russia face after the fall of the Soviet Union quizlet?
After the breakup of the Soviet Union, what problems did Yeltsin face as the president of the Russian Federation? He had trouble improving the economy, economic problems lead to political crisis, and there was war in Chechnya.
How has Europe changed since the end of the Cold War quizlet?
How has Europe changed since the end of the Cold War? The EU has been created and NATO has grown.
How does shock therapy work?
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure, done under general anesthesia, in which small electric currents are passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a brief seizure. ECT seems to cause changes in brain chemistry that can quickly reverse symptoms of certain mental health conditions.
Can ECT make you worse?
Some people have very bad experiences of ECT, for example because they feel worse after treatment or are given it without consent. You might not want to risk the possibility of getting side effects.
What mental illness does ECT treat?
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical treatment most commonly used in patients with severe major depression or bipolar disorder that has not responded to other treatments. ECT involves a brief electrical stimulation of the brain while the patient is under anesthesia.
Is shock therapy still legal?
It is legal in the United States, though it’s illegal to give it to patients younger than 16 in Texas and Colorado. In some cases, with the permission of courts, doctors can force very sick patients to get ECT.
Does ECT damage the brain?
These conditions are not approached during ECT. Other findings indicate that the passage of electricity, thermal effects, and the transient disruption of the blood-brain barrier during ECS do not result in structural brain damage. Conclusions: There is no credible evidence that ECT causes structural brain damage.
What are the negative side effects of ECT?
What are the risks and side-effects of ECT?
- loss of memory about the events immediately before and after ECT.
- heart rhythm disturbances.
- low blood pressure.
- sore muscles, aching jaw.
Is shock therapy still used for schizophrenia?
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a remarkably effective treatment for major depressive disorder, but is less commonly utilized for treatment of psychotic disorders. Recent literature indicates that ECT can be a useful strategy for a wide range of psychotic disorders, including treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
What causes schizophrenia?
The exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown. Research suggests a combination of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make a person more likely to develop the condition. Some people may be prone to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode.
What medications should be stopped before ECT?
Medication Information: Benzodiazepines, Depakote, Lamictal, Neurontin, Trileptal – Do not take the night time dose or morning dose before your treatment. Lithium – Do not take for 24 hours before each treatment. Glucophage/Metformin – Do not take for 12 hours before each treatment.
Can ECT cause psychosis?
A common cause of psychotic symptoms such as hallucination, delusions and thought disorder after ECT may also occur in the course of delirium-type impaired consciousness [10–13].
Can ECT change your personality?
ECT does not change a person’s personality, nor is it designed to treat those with just primary “personality disorders.” ECT can cause transient short-term memory — or new learning — impairment during a course of ECT, which fully reverses usually within one to four weeks after an acute course is stopped.
How many ECT treatments is too many?
It is important to realize that a ‘course ‘ of ECT entails a series of treatments given 2-3 times per week until maximal improvement has occurred. Most patients require 6 to 12 total treatments.
What happens when ECT doesn’t work?
If electroconvulsive therapy doesn’t work, the next step could be deep brain stimulation (DBS) — a depression treatment that is currently considered experimental.
What challenges did Russia face after the fall of the Soviet Union?
The former Soviet Union had to deal with a number of unique obstacles during the post-Soviet transition including political reform, economic restructuring and the redrawing of political boundaries.
What was shock therapy in Russia?
Shock therapy is an economic program intended to transition a planned economy or developmentalist economy to a free market economy through sudden and dramatic neoliberal reform.
What was known as shock therapy in the post communist regimes?
Answer: DEFINITION of ‘Shock Therapy’ A sudden and dramatic change in national economic policy that turns a state-controlled economy into a free-market one. Characteristics of shock therapy include the ending of price controls, the privatization of publicly-owned entities and trade liberalization.
Why did Soviet system became so weak and Soviet economy stagnant?
Soviet system became so weak and Soviet economy stagnant due to the following reasons: 1. The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining nuclear and military arsenals. 2. Ordinary citizens became more knowledgeable about the economic advancement of the West and backwardness of Soviet system.
What is shock therapy was this the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism?
The model of transition in Russia, central Asia and East Europe came to be known as shock therapy. However, shock therapy wasn’t the best way to transition from communism to capitalism because: It was a sudden and immediate change that uprooted the entire existing system and wrecked havoc over the economy of the state.
What was shock therapy in political science?
Shock therapy is an economic theory that says that sudden, dramatic changes in national economic policy can turn a state-controlled economy into a free-market economy.
How was Soviet economy different from American economy?
The U.S. and the Soviet Union had different ideas about how to run an economy (business) and government. The U.S. believed in Capitalism – a system where ordinary people and businesses control the production of goods and services. The Soviet Union influenced Eastern Europe, while the U.S. influenced Western Europe.
How strong was the Soviet economy?
From the Stalin-era to the early Brezhnev-era, the Soviet economy grew much slower than Japan and slightly faster than the United States. GDP levels in 1950 (in billion 1990 dollars) were 510 (100%) in the Soviet Union, 161 (100%) in Japan and 1,456 (100%) in the United States.
What was the main difference between the US and the Soviet Union?
Not only was the Soviet Union communist, they were totalitarian, meaning all the power was with the rulers. The United States was capitalist which meant that people could own land and businesses and compete for themselves. This led to a stark contrast between poor and rich.
What kind of economy did the USSR have?
Was the USSR poor?
15% of the population lived in areas with pollution 10x normal levels. By the US poverty measure, well over half of the Soviet population were poor. Around a quarter could not afford a winter hat or coat, which cost an entire month’s wages on average (the equivalent of £1700 in UK terms).
What was the goal of the Soviet planned economy?
The theoretical objective of the Soviet economic planning, as executed by Gosplan, was rational allocation of resources in a way that resulted in output of desired assortment of goods and services.
Was there money in the Soviet Union?